sharing in governance of extractive industries
Fiscal rules—permanent quantitative constraints on government finances—are an important tool to help mitigate the macroeconomic challenges associated with managing natural resource revenues. Partly inspired by successes in managing resource revenues in countries such as Chile, Peru and Norway (countries that have established fiscal rules and have abided by these budgetary constraints for over a decade), more countries have been adopting such rules.
We reviewed the use of fiscal…
Governments of mining countries are vulnerable to investors using double tax agreements (DTAs) as a means of avoiding paying taxes. DTAs are bilateral, or multilateral agreements between countries that set out which country has the right to collect tax on different types of income. Interest expense on foreign loans is one such source of income. The DTA will specify how much tax the source country can collect on the interest paid by the local mining subsidiary, to its affiliate, usually in a…Continue
Resource-rich countries tend to experience slower economic growth and more social problems than do less-endowed countries—a phenomenon dubbed the “resource curse.” But it turns out that in many cases, economic growth begins to underperform long before the first drop of oil is produced; this we call the “presource curse.”
In a recent research paper, we found…Continue
The Mongolian government recently announced a USD 5.5 billion bailout agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other development partners, including the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the governments of Japan and South Korea. In return, Mongolia approved a limited and revenue-focused set of reforms. Budget amendments passed in April included increases in personal income tax rates, increases in fuel, alcohol and tobacco taxes, and a public service wage…Continue