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It is noteworthy of Dr Massawe metaphor (2) in the context of "the absence of Government responsibility to empower it's citizens", in respect of traditional political practice and heritage right; be they mineral or other.
It cannot be stressed enough that capacity building of the indigenous supply chain, small scale mining enterprise and indigenous technical expertise is prioritised to promote influence of national mining policy.

There have been considerable economic injustices, tangible and intangible heritage loss to communities and nations.

How long will transfer of assets and citizen empowerment to African owned mining enterprise take?

My thought is founded on understanding that African mining is a constituent element of the Global Mining Industry and Economy in which players have contributed opportunities like in their mineral resources to create a global game in which players from various contributors and/members are competing for the opportunities. In the competitions, players are guided with own strategies which are formulated taking into consideration the strategies of the other players and their weaknesses which could be capitalized on in the development of own strategy which would enable own kind of competitiveness and success in the competitions for a share of the global opportunities. That is, in the competitions, competitors are equipped with egoistic strategies and winners are the ones who are well equipped with the strategies formulated on bypassing the competitive advantages and strategies of the other players and capitalized on own competitive advantages and disadvantages of the other players. Most African Mineral Policies are cocktails of chaotic copying of existing Mineral Policies in the mineral rich developed countries, and therefore African Mineral Policies which are copies of the strategies which work for the developed countries against the mineral rich developing countries, that is African Mineral Policies which work for competitors from the developed world. It is egoism governs competitors; it is egoism governs countries in their competitions for living opportunities on our planet; it is egoism behind successful and unsuccessful Economies on our planet. Therefore, it is Afro- centric rather than Euro-centric approach to mining leads to the evolution of African mining which is African as Dr. Kassala concluded.

How do you define "African"? How African is African? Is the African Mining Vision 2050 African? If the logic in the 'African' mining policies was based on 'ubuntu economics', perhaps that would be the beginning of African mining! We need an Afrocentric, unlike a Eurocentric, approach to mining in Africa for it to be African!